Remote Sensing of Hydrological Variables
- Retrieval of surface soil moisture using the active microwave data (ENVISAT,RADARSAT)
- Validation of the surface soil moisure retrieved using passive microwave data (AMSR-E and SMOS products)
- Calibration/validation of the surface soil moisture using the upcoming Indian Satellite RISAT (active microwave)
- Calibration/validation of rainfall products retrieved using the Megha-Tropique, an upcoming satellite being launched jointly by ISRO and ESA
- Retrieval of Evapotranspiration using the MODIS data
Hydrologic Impacts of Climate Change
- Detection and Attribution of Change
- Statistical Downscaling
- Uncertainty Modeling
- Reservoir Operation under Uncertainty
- Urban Flooding
- Water Quality Modeling
- Detection and Attribution of Change
Water Resources Systems
- Reservoir Operation
- Irrigation Planning
- Water Quality Control
- River basin Planning
- Stream flow Quantity-Quality Modeling
- Flood Routing
- Floodplain Planning and Management
Assimilation of Remote Sensing Data into Hydrological Models
- Perform synthetic experiments to evaluate the effect of updating freuency on the improvments in the model state.
- Assimilation of surface soil moisture and ET into a hydrological model using the approaches like Linear Kalman, extended Kalman, and ensemble Kalman filter.
- The uncertainty in the model is estimated using the GLUE methodology.
- Estimation of the uncertainty in the output after assimilation.
- Analysis of the uncertainty because of the non-uniqueness using the GLUE methodology.
- Development of the watershed scale models for the mass and energry transfer.
- Collect the datasets over a longer period of time (~few decades) to model the temporal dynamics of the recharge to groundwater.
- Estimate recharge rates using extensive monitoring of field (~ 2-3 wells in 1 KM2)
- Estimate the effect of groundwater draft on the groundwater levels.
- Integrate the vadose zone models to determine the recharge to groundwater systems.
- Optimize the parameters of aquifer by considering the non-uniqueness.
- Predict groundwater flow velocity and direction under the stochastic environment.
- Predict the long-term impacts of groundwater pumping and land use change.
- Predict recharge rates for possible future landuse scenerios.
Agricultural Water Management
- Calibrate crop model using the masured agro-hydrological variables.
- Simulate the effect of the climate change on water usage.
- Simulate the effect of crop on the groundwater levels.
- Integrate various approaches to model the movement of water and contaminant in the vadose zone.
- Optimize vadose zone parameters.
- Simulate vadose zone water flow velocity and direction.
- Measure and predict vadose zone contaminant concentrations and transport rates.
Watersheds are the fundamental unit for the hydrology. The analysis of the Watershed of different scales (ranging from ~10 KM2 to 10,000 KM2) using numerical tools (such as finite element), stastical tools (such as Empirical Orthogonal Function and Wavelet) and extensive field experiments provide the oppurtinity to assess the impacts of land use, groundwater pumping, variability in precipitaion, and climate change on hydrolgogical cycles. Various models are being developed using a state-of-the-art modeling techniques that describes the complex interactions of the atmosphere, biosphere and hydrosphere. This tools aer being used in assessing the impact of land-use changes on stream flow and groundwater etc. The system is also being used to study possible impacts of climate change on the magnitude and timing of runoff and the resultant effect on the timing and availability of water for various needs.
Land-Use Impact Assessment
Quantitative evaluations of the impacts of the land use (e.g. groundwater pumping and landuse change) on the hydrological processes is being done.
- Predictive models for NAPL movement in porous / fractured media
- Inverse models for NAPL movement in porous media
- Flow behavior in coastal aquifers
- Modeling of flow and heat transfer in geothermal reservoir
- CO2 disposal in abandoned aquifers
- Urban Water Distribution Systems
- Quantity and quality modeling
- Application of Control algorithms and soft computing techniques to water networks
- Control systems for urban water networks
- Prediction of temporal chlorine and biomass concentration using different algorithms of ANNs
- Use of different architectures of ANNs in the temporal prediction of water quality indicators Irrigation Systems and Small experimental watersheds